|Fig. 1 Dental Trauma|
Traumatic force to the teeth or periodontium can cause destruction in a variety of direction and of a variety of magnitudes. Traumatic injuries often occur. For the sake of clarity, however, each type of injury will be describe individually.
The classification of dental trauma used is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of diseases and has been modified according to Andreasen's recommendation.
|Fig. 1-1a Enamel infraction|
|Fig. 1-1b Enamel fracture|
Crown Fracture Without Pulpal InvolvementThis type of crown fracture involves only enamel and dentin with no direct pulp exposure (Fig. 1-1c).
|Fig. 1-1c Crown fracture without pulpal involvement|
Crown Fracture With Pulpal InvolvementThis fracture involves enamel, dentin, and direct exposure of the pulp (Fig. 1-1d).
|Fig. 1-1d Crown fracture with pulpal involvement|
Crown-root FractureThis fracture involves enamel, dentin, and cementum, and may or may not involve pulpal exposure (Fig. 1-1e).
|Fig. 1-1e Crown-root fracture|
Root FractureThis fracture involves dentin, cementum and pulp (Fig. 1-1f). Special attention is required because root fracture and luxation injury may occur simultaneously.
|Fig. 1-1f Root fracture|
ConcussionConcussion is a minor injury of the periodontium with no displacement of the tooth nor mobility (Fig. 1-1g).
|Fig. 1-1g Concussion|
SubluxationSubluxation is an injury of the periodontium without displacement of the tooth but with slight mobility. Damage to the blood supply of the pulp and the periodontium is usually minor, but pulpal problem occasionally result (Fig. 1-1h)
|Fig. 1-1h Subluxation|
Extrusive LuxationThis injury is displacement of the tooth in an extrusive direction involving the periodontal support and the pulpal blood supply (Fig. 1-1i)
|Fig. 1-1i Extrusive luxation|
Lateral LuxationThe tooth is displaced from its long axis, usually with the apical end displaced labially and the coronal part palatally. The pulpal blood supply is usually completely severed (Fig. 1-1j)
|Fig. 1-1j Lateral luxation|
This most serious of luxation injuries results in the tooth being displaced apically, leading to a crushing of the neurovascular bundle entering the pulp and severe damage to the cementum and periodontium (Fig. 1-1k)
|Fig. 1-1k Intrusive luxation|
An avulsed tooth is completely displaced from the alveolus with total disruption of the pulpal blood supply (Fig. 1-1l)
|Fig. 1-1l Avulsion|
Soft Tissue Injury and Fracture of Alveolar Bone
Soft tissue injury involves the gingiva, oral mucosa, and lips. Fractures involve the alveoli and the jaw bones.
Reference : Tsukiboshi, M. 2000. Treatment Planning for Traumatized Teeth. Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. Japan